Friday, August 12, 2011


Out of Thin Air: The Quest to Capture Carbon Dioxide

Drawing carbon dioxide directly out of air: Some scientists say such technology is essential, others view it as wishful.

Diagram by Joe Zeff, National Geographic

An artificial "tree" used to capture carbon. (Photograph courtesy Klaus Lackner)

Marianne Lavelle

For National Geographic News

Published August 11, 2011

Trees and other green plants pull carbon dioxide out of the air. 

Shouldn't we be able to do it, too? 

Only better?

A small but determined number of researchers have been working on just this idea: Drawing carbon dioxide directly out of the air with chemicals. 

They argue it is necessary to help address the huge overburden of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere, a problem that would otherwise continue to compromise the health of the planet even if the world stopped burning fossil fuels tomorrow.

The advocates of "direct air capture," however, seemingly were dealt a blow when a two-year study released in June by a committee of the American Physical Society (APS) cast doubt on whether the technology could ever be cost-effective. 

Relying on data in the public domain, the APS panel expressed pessimism about the technology's prospects, at least in the short term.

Undaunted, air capture researchers are continuing their work toward demonstration of the technology and commercialization. 

They say that their own findings, some of which are not yet published, give them reason to be optimistic. 

And they say their technologies could be combined with others or used in applications that could offset costs. 

For example, direct air capture might prove especially well-suited to recycle carbon dioxide back into the ordinary, familiar liquid hydrocarbon fuels that power today's trucks, planes, and even cars. 

(See related story: "Carbon Recycling: Mining the Air for Fuel")

A Dilute Mixture

The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is high enough to cause grave risk for the planet, but it is still far more dilute than the CO2 streaming from a power plant smokestack. 

That dilute mix is the underlying problem with air capture, in the view of the APS panel, co-chaired by Robert Socolow, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton University, and Michael Desmond, an adviser in BP Refining and Marketing's research and technology department.

The committee estimated the cost of direct air capture with chemicals at $600 per ton of CO2, seven times more expensive than proposed technologies to remove CO2 from a coal plant smokestack. 

At some point, it might make sense to try direct air capture to grapple with the problem of CO2 emissions from "distributed emissions" (such as those from planes, trucks, and cars), the panel said. But it wouldn't make sense to try to capture CO2 from the air until CO2 was already being captured from concentrated sources.

"Human beings may wish to cancel some or all future fossil fuel emissions and even to undo past emissions," wrote the APS committee. 

"But wishing is not doing."

The committee specified that it looked only at the cost of CO2 capture; post-capture management of CO2 was beyond the scope of its study. But some researchers note that what is done with the CO2 after it is captured could have bearing on the cost of the whole system.

"If your purpose is to make a fuel, you could capture CO2 right at the point where you convert it," explains Ellen Stechel, manager of the "Sunshine to Petrol" project at the U.S. Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California.

 "You avoid the transportation. You avoid the energy to compress it. 

And it's going to come out of the air much cleaner than it would" from a flue stack.

Traditional carbon capture and sequestration projects have looked only at burying the CO2 waste, Stechel notes, not using it. 

But if your purpose is to usethe CO2, "then all these advantages plus others might counteract the one disadvantage of air capture—the lower concentration."

Super-Absorbing "Trees"

Klaus Lackner, a physicist at Columbia University, one of the pioneers of research into direct air capture, recently defended the technology in a post on Columbia's Earth Institute blog, "Yes, We Can Afford to Remove Carbon from Air." (Lackner is director of the institute's Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy.) Lackner noted that the APS report, despite its grim cost analysis, recognized that air capture is one of the few options for reducing atmospheric CO2.

He also said the APS panel did not raise any scientific or technical issues that would preclude the kind of improvements needed to bring the price down. Lackner's own estimate is that the cost of the process he and his team have developed could be brought down to $30 per ton.

Lackner and his colleagues are known for their work on synthetic "trees" (actually, towers) with materials called "sorbents" that would absorb CO2 from the air. The machines would be far more efficient at doing the job than natural foliage— able to extract 1,000 times more CO2 than a tree of the same size. 

(For a look at Lackner's technology, see "The Big Idea: Scrubbing the Skies.")

The process does require energy, but Lackner says the CO2 captured in their process would exceed the CO2 released—even if the source of energy is the current makeup of the U.S. electricity grid (50 percent coal and 20 percent natural gas). (The amount released in that case would be about 20 percent of what is captured, Lackner says.) The benefits would increase if renewable energy were used.

There is a natural resource cost; water is needed to activate the process of the sorbent absorbing and releasing CO2.

 "Rather than heating the material, we make it moist," says Lackner. "For us, in a roundabout way, the water acts as a fuel." But Lackner says his team's synthetic trees would use about 100 times less water than ordinary trees.

Lackner's team is now working with San Francisco start-up Kilimanjaro Energy  on demonstration plants. 

He, like Stechel, believes that how the CO2 is used after capture is crucial to consider when assessing the cost of the system. One strategy for addressing costs in the short-term, he notes, is to market the CO2 captured—sharing a location, for instance, with a greenhouse that would value a stream of low-concentration CO2.

"What I've found intriguing about these technologies is they can start before you have a consensus on climate change," Lackner says.

Turning Down the Heat

Two other Columbia University professors who have been working separately from Lackner's group, Peter Eisenberger and Graciela Chichilnisky, also are focused on sieve-like sorbents as a means for extracting CO2 from air.

They say their company, Global Thermostat (GT), uses proprietary sorbents that can capture carbon at substantially less cost and with less energy use than scientists have previously assumed. 

They say this has been confirmed by outside scientists with leading industrial gas and analytical firms who have produced confidential reports on their process. Chichilnisky and Eisenberger say they offered APS committee access to their experimental data, but the panel declined.

To look at the not-yet-published, commercially sensitive data, the panelists would have had to agree to confidentiality. "As a matter of policy the Committee sought to avoid learning any of their ideas that could not be made public," the panel's report explained.

But Chichilnisky and Eisenberger have explained publicly what they say is an important fact when assessing the cost of their technology: It requires only low-grade heat of less than 212°F (100°C)—the boiling point of water—to do capture CO2. 

So GT can use the residual heat at any industrial process plant. 

"Anything that generates heat as part of power is ideal candidate for us to cogenerate with," Eisenberger says. So GT's technology could be located at an ordinary power planet, not for the purpose of absorbing CO2 from the flue gas but to make use of the facility's heat.

Eisenberger and Chichilnisky say GT overcomes the issue that has bedeviled efforts to capture CO2 from the flue gas of coal plants with sorbents—the "parasitic load" problem, or the fact that the extra energy it takes to capture carbon would reduce the efficiency of the coal plant. Chichilnisky says GT's process design, in which residual heat is the main source of energy, is key to lowering costs, since such low heat is inexpensive or even free.

"There is enough residual heat in a coal power plant to capture twice as much carbon as the plant emits," she says. "This way Global Thermostat can turn a fossil fuel plant into a carbon sink that reduces atmospheric carbon—namely, a carbon-negative power plant. The more energy plants of this type that you produce, the more you clean the atmosphere."

A GT demonstration plant opened last fall at the facilities of the research institute SRI International in Menlo Park, California, is currently is absorbing 700 tons of CO2 per year—about the amount emitted by burning 77,160 gallons (292,080 liters) of gasoline. GT also is working on developing a biorefinery with an algae-based biofuel start-up company, Algae Systems. The CO2 sequestered by Global Thermostat's process could be fed to algae to produce renewable jet fuel, diesel fuel, and biochar (a charcoal created from biomass). GT and Algae Systems are planning joint plants in Japan and India. GT is also developing a plant that aims to take carbon from air and mix it with hydrogen separated from water to produce hydrocarbon fuel in a process the scientists say would be both cost-efficient and renewable.

Draining the Carbon Bathtub

The APS committee said that there was much uncertainty in trying to estimate the viability of capturing carbon from air. "The reality is that neither [direct air capture] costs nor the costs of alternatives are known well today: much depends on the progress of future technology, environmental impacts, and public acceptance," the panel said.

The entrepreneurs stress that costs come down as technology advances. But the APS scientists noted that the reverse also could be true: "Industry experience suggests that cost estimates for any system rise after the completion of pilot plant operations, when the necessary compromises in materials choices, process conditions, component efficiencies, and component lifetimes are taken into account."

Yet the scientists who are committed to developing air capture of carbon believe that society won't be able to tackle the problem of climate change without it. The global climate crisis has long been the focus of Eisenberger, a physicist who is founder of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and of the Materials Institute at Princeton University, and Chichilnisky, a mathematician and economist whose résumé includes that she was the architect of the Kyoto Protocol's carbon market.

"We have envisioned our technology from the beginning as a way to help make the transition one energy ecology system to another," says Chichilnisky.

They are among the many scientists who view the Earth's atmosphere as a bathtub that is filling up with carbon dioxide faster than it can be drained by plants, oceans, and other natural absorption. 

(See graphic: The Carbon Bathtub) Carbon-negative technology, says Eisenberger, "is the equivalent of taking it out of the drain."

Technologies like carbon-free renewable energy are essential, but insufficient, in the view of Eisenberger and Chichilnisky. "It is too late to just reduce the growth of carbon emissions by building renewable power plants," says Chichilnisky.

 "There is a $55 trillion fossil fuel energy infrastructure to be replaced, and the process is bound to be slow. The concentration of CO2 is already too high, and the carbon keeps accumulating, so now we need to actually capture and reduce the carbon that is already in the atmosphere."

The APS panel agrees that CO2 levels have grown unacceptably high. The committee took pains to warn policymakers not to delay to address the greenhouse gas problem in hopes that technology would come to the rescue. "This report provides no support for arguments in favor of procrastination in dealing with climate change that are based on the imminent availability of [direct air capture] as a compensating strategy," it said.

But the entrepreneurial scientists working on direct air capture argue that their work is meant to propel climate policy, not postpone it. In the coming years, they aim to show—depite skepticism—that the brimming carbon dioxide bathtub can be drained.

This story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visitThe Great Energy Challenge.


Red Mango finally gets mango flavor

Dallas Business Journal 

- by Steven R. Thompson                                                                Date: Friday, August 12, 2011, 6:15pm CDT
                                                                                                               Steven R. Thompson                                                                                                                                                        Staff Writer

Red Mango releases its mango-flavored yogurt Saturday at participating stores, and I was able to get a sneak peek or, should I say, taste of the product at the company’s headquarters in Dallas Friday.

The natural question is, of course, why the heck didn’t the company have the flavor of its namesake from the time it opened in 2007?

I’m told that founder Dan Kim wanted to make sure it was as authentic as possible before rolling out a mango flavor.

I’m no mango connoisseur, so I can’t speak to how well it represents the fruit, but it was a refreshing treat for another 100-degree day in DFW.

The company has more than 130 franchise locations and is looking to expand nationally and internationally, according to Barry M. Barron Sr., the company’s very new (like two weeks new) CEO, with whom I had the chance to speak.

Barron is a franchise expansion pro, who worked with companies like ACE Cash Express   and Papa John’s to expand. He seems to have a passion for Red Mango, since he came out of retirement to run the company.

While Barron says his favorite flavor is banana, perhaps he’ll be making the switch to mango when it hits stores tomorrow.

Steven covers retail, hospitality, marketing and public relations.

South American mango season preview: August 12, 2011

By Will Cavan
Executive Director
International Mango Organization (IMO)
Vista, California

August 12, 2011

By this time next week, the first Brazil Tommy Atkins will be arriving Northeast USA.

The first vessel has 14 containers and sailed from Fortaleza last Saturday. This weekend a second vessel with approximately 75 containers will set sail.

After that weekly shipments of roughly 100 containers per week are projected for the USA market.

Brazil plans an orderly program of roughly 6,000,00 cartons for the season and hopes to keep the FOB range within a $6.00 to $8.00 target similar to last season.

The big question marks are Ecuador and Peru.

The season is running late on the Pacific side of South America. 

Ecuador plans to begin harvesting in September. 

Last season, Ecuador ran a very well coordinated season and reaped the benefits until Peru flooded the market.

Hopefully, this year will be different.

This lag on the west coast, should help California production and sales and the tail end of the Mexican deal which has been running into quality problems this year.

It appears that the Los Mochis fruit is coming in rough and this is keeping FOBs in the $3.75 to $4.00 range.

The preliminary report on the Brazil fruit is that quality is excellent with good color and the proper maturity.

Hopefully Mexico will clean up on the west coast before Ecuador comes in for a smooth transition.

Reports from Peru is that the bloom is only about 30% at present and the crop is running late. We will have a better idea by mid September on crop size. At this juncture, the IMO is afraid that Peru will duplicate last seasons volume of 12,000,000 cartons for the USA market.

The big challenge for Ecuador will be to get in and out of the market before Peru floods it.

And the Challenge for Peru will be to coordinate shipments and volume to peak before the end of February 2012 and Mexico's volume.

The IMO will be very surprised if Peru can coordinate a responsible time & volume program.

Only time will tell....



Haiti gets $2M grant to help create jobs

Published: Aug. 11, 2011 at 4:43 PM

PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti, Aug. 11 (UPI) -- Haiti's devastated economy will receive a boost of $2 million through a grant from the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund to help regenerate the country's small business sector.

The Caribbean nation is still reeling under the effect of last year's earthquake, several natural disasters before that and years of poor governance.

A magnitude-7 temblor hit Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas Jan. 12, 2010, causing extensive damage, and killing an estimated 220,000.

The country's Parliament, presidential palace and many other important structures were destroyed, along with countless homes and businesses. Ten months later an outbreak of cholera killed hundreds more.

The money pledged by the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund will go to non-profit organization TechnoServe to implement a Haitian Business Accelerator project that aims to transform small and growing businesses into investment-ready, bankable companies that can be positioned to develop Haiti's formal economy and promote jobs.

Haiti's informal economy and black market in all essential sectors pose a challenge to international aid-givers and benefactors.

The project is expected to last three years, a period that TechnoServe and HBA will use to work with businesses they see as worthy of investment and hope to transform them into businesses that are ready for investment.

TechnoServe has more than 1,000 Haitian businesses within its sights and plans to work with a selection of 750 entrepreneurs most suited for success. It plans to "train this elite group with global best practices in business development," the fund said.

"Haiti's formal business sector is very small and businesses of all sizes have suffered significantly since last year's earthquake," fund Vice President for Programs and Investments Paul Altidor said.

"Small and growing enterprises hold the potential for transforming Haiti's economy but these enterprises need business acumen and access to financial services in order to attract the private investment they need to develop. The Business Accelerator will help them do just that," Altidor said.

The fund says it is also working with TechnoServe's Haiti Hope Project, which aims to increase the income of 25,000 small farming families in the mango sector. 

TechnoServe recently completed a business plan competition called "Mon Entreprise, Mon Avenir" -- "My Business, My Future" in French -- guiding more than 80 promising Haitian entrepreneurs.

The Clinton Bush Haiti Fund was founded after the 2010 earthquake, when U.S. President Barack Obama asked former U.S. Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush to lead a major fundraising effort to assist Haitians to "build back better."

With help from Clinton and Bush, the fund, raised cash for humanitarian relief and began independent operations in May last year to help promote sustainable reconstruction. The latest grant is part of that effort.

However, Haitian politics are far from stable. Violent confrontations between rival gangs and political groups are endemic and the human rights situation is reported by U.N. experts as "catastrophic."

None of the international efforts undertaken since the earthquake and cholera outbreak have addressed an underlying source of unrest and instability -- the income gap between the impoverished Creole-speaking black majority and the French-speaking minority, 1 percent of Haiti's population of 9.7 million but said to be in control of nearly half the country's wealth.

Although Haiti is rich in many natural resources including bauxite, gold and silver, it subsists on mango and coffee exports and foreign aid, much of it from the United States, Canada and the European Union, that funds up to 40 percent of the government budget. Despite numerous measures by aid-givers, corruption is still a major issue in Haiti.

© 2011 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Any reproduction, republication, redistribution and/or modification of any UPI content is expressly prohibited without UPI's prior written consent.

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Albert’s Organics promoting Chilean, Peruvian organic products
By Christina DiMartino                                                                                                                  | July 13, 2011

Wholesale distributor Albert’s Organics, headquartered in Santa Cruz, CA, is a full-service organic produce wholesale distributor that carries a complete line of organic fresh produce.

“Currently we are promoting organic blueberries from Chile and
organic mangoes from Peru,” Simcha Weinstein, director of marketing, told The Produce News. “Of course we are also promoting winter time citrus, but then we often will work on getting our customers excited about the non-seasonal items that come from the southlands and offer a bit of a taste of summer during the cold winter season.”

Since its founding in 1982, Albert’s has delivered a full line of organic produce — around 350 items — ranging from cactus leaves to broccoli, and everything in between. It sources produce from all over the world in order to have a complete selection year round. Its produce is distributed across the nation to all segments of the food industry.

“When we began in 1982, the majority of our customers were natural foods stores,” said Mr. Weinstein. “At that time they were the primary avenue for selling organic and natural foods. Today, we have a nice balance in our customer base of natural food stores, chain supermarkets, restaurants and foodservice groups, as well as industrial operations. We were the first certified organic distributor with nationwide coverage.”

Albert’s dedicated national procurement team sources all of its products nationally and internationally. It outfits entire produce departments with complete selections of organic fresh produce.

“With eight distribution centers in the United States, we also place a strong emphasis on locally and regionally grown foods, and our buyers at each division do an excellent job of working with the growers that are local to their areas,” Mr. Weinstein added.

He said that signs indicate that organic produce continues to grow in demand, even with the sluggish economy.

“The good news is that in 2010 the organic industry grew at a rate of nearly eight percent, increasing to over $28.6 billion in sales,” he said. “During this year the total U.S. food sales grew by only one percent, so it seems that relative to the baseline standard, organic sales are doing quite well. Organic fruits and vegetables actually experienced the most growth and now account for nearly 12 percent of all U.S. produce sales. The total organic fruit and vegetable sales were at nearly $10.6 billion, up nearly 12 percent from 2009. These numbers are significant, and they show that while our economic recovery is a bit sluggish, people are not only continuing to purchase organic foods, but they are increasing their organic choices. And clearly, new shoppers of organic foods are coming on board.”

The local movement, Mr. Weinstein added, will most likely continue to be strong moving forward. He noted that in general, shoppers of organic foods prefer that the products they buy will leave as small a carbon footprint as possible, and locally grown adheres to that principal. Albert’s advantage is in its eight distribution points in the nation, enabling it to source from eight local and regional areas.


Higher Yields are Available with K-Mag® Fertilizer

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The shortage of just one essential nutrient can shortchange tree fruit yields and quality. Growers can optimize yields and maximize profits by providing a balanced soil fertility program that ensures all 17 essential nutrients are available to plants.

K-Mag fertilizer provides three essential nutrients in the highly available sulfate form. Available in PREMIUM, GRANULAR and STANDARD grades, K-Mag provides 21-22% potassium (K2O), 10.5-11% magnesium (Mg) and 21-22% sulfur (S).

Also known as langbeinite, potassium magnesium sulfate, or double sulfate of potash, K-Mag is sourced from ore beds deep beneath the earth's surface, where an isolated lake of ocean water once existed. Langbeinite, an evaporite mineral, is one of the most soluble salts in the ocean.

Increase tree fruit yields
Peaches, plums, nectarines, apricots, cherries and pears all require a ready supply of nutrients, as well as proper soil pH, to achieve maximum fruit quality and yield. Proper nutrition also helps extend the life of the high-producing tree. A combination of leaf analysis, soil analysis, and visual observation of tree performance will help growers determine crop nutrient requirements.

Potassium (K)
Tree fruits require large amounts of K, frequently removing greater amounts of K than even N. Oftencalled the “quality nutrient,” K contributes to fruit color, winter hardiness, tree growth and disease resistance (e.g. fire blight in pears). K helps produce large, juicy fruit and helps reduce bitter pit. K also is responsible for water status and acidity levels, two factors that can greatly affect fruit taste.

Magnesium (Mg)
High K inputs can inhibit magnesium (Mg) uptake, and Mg deficiency is becoming more evident in many orchards. Without Mg, plants can't photosynthesize, and important carbohydrates and proteins aren't produced. Mg deficiencies can cause small fruit and premature fruit drop. K-Mag provides a readily available soluble source of Mg.

K-Mag helps supply K and Mg in the correct balance. Results from a six-year field trial on Elberta Peaches in North Carolina help illustrate this point: applications of K or Mg alone had no effect on yields. But when K and Mg were applied together, yields increased.

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K Rates
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"The Debt Limit Debate Has Just Begun"

By Gary Wolfram
William Simon Professor of Economics and Public Policy
Hillsdale College

Article originally posted on

The deal which raised the debt ceiling did not meet with the stock market rally that some had expected.

 This was in large part because, despite the media hype, the markets knew that the U.S. was not going to default on its debt obligations.

 The fact that 10 year Treasuries were yielding around two and a half percent indicates that the markets were aware that the U.S. always had enough revenue to make interest payments on our bonds and to refinance maturing debt.

Without further borrowing ability the Treasury would not have been able to make all payments due, however.

 A choice would have had to be made as to whether Social Security payments would be delayed, Medicare providers’ checks would be reduced, or government vendors would not get paid on time.

But given the 14th amendment’s provision that the validity of the debt of the United States shall not be questioned, it is almost certain that U.S. Treasury bondholders would have been paid.

Who would not have been paid would have been a political choice. AARP reported that its members “flooded the White House and the halls of Congress with 557,249 letters and 387,018 phone calls.”

 This might give an indication that the politically correct thing for the President to do would have been to reduce and delay Social Security payments that are received by 60 million Americans, and blame it on the “Tea Party Republicans.”

 While the President would appear on prime time national television to make his point, the Speaker of the House would have had a hard time beating out The Voice to give his response.

In 1995-96 I took a leave from Hillsdale College to be Congressman Nick Smith’s chief of staff.

 A similar battle was taking place with the newly elected House Republican majority and President Bill Clinton.

 The Republicans had control of the Senate as well and sent a balanced budget and debt ceiling increase to President Clinton, who vetoed it.

 The federal government was temporarily shut down and President Clinton was able to win the issue politically.

 Newt Gingrich ended up losing his position as Speaker of the House and Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole was firmly trounced by Clinton in the 1996 election.

Given the political realities, including that the Republicans only control one House this time, the outcome of the debt limit legislation was as good a deal as was going to be made.

The gain, however, was not in the details of the deal itself, other than it avoided raising taxes, but in pushing to the front pages of America the fact that federal government spending is not sustainable.

Friedrich Hayek wrote in The Constitution of Liberty that a primary benefit of democracy is that debate over the issues will advance the state of knowledge.

 The “intransigence of the Tea Party Republicans” accomplished what it needed to—push the debate on federal government spending into the national spotlight.

The debt ceiling legislation does little to address the unsustainable degree of federal government spending, particularly in entitlement programs.

 The media has trumpeted the “cuts” by adding them up over ten years.

 For example, we know that the basics of the deal are about $1 trillion in cuts from discretionary spending, and then the Super Committee will find another $1.2 trillion in deficit reductions.

To put this in perspective, the Congressional Budget Office projects federal spending over the next decade to exceed $50 trillion.

Little wonder that the markets did not rally in the face of the deal.

What this all means, however, is that the debate over federal spending has at least begun.

 Most Americans now realize that the national debt is in excess of $14.3 trillion, and that Medicare and Social Security, as well as Medicaid, are in an unsustainable position.

What is vital is that those who believe in a limited federal government and in the importance of freedom keep the debate alive by noting that nothing has been done yet to address the long run unfunded liabilities of Social Security and Medicare.

It is not sustainable for Americans over the age of 62 to expect their retirement and health care to be paid for by someone else for the final 20 to 30 years of their life.

 Common sense tells us that this cannot possibly happen. The debt limit debate has forced our Congressmen to admit to this. The next step is to address the problem.

Gary Wolfram is William Simon Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Hillsdale College and President of Hillsdale Policy Group, a consulting firm specializing in taxation and policy analysis. His public policy experience includes serving as Congressman Nick Smith's Chief of Staff, Michigan’s Deputy State Treasurer for Taxation and Economic Policy under Governor John Engler, and Senior Economist to the Republican Senate in Michigan.

Visit our website,, for more information about Hillsdale College.


Why does the National Mango Board (NMB) refuse to list the International mango Organization (IMO) or the Produce Marketing Association (PMA) ???

The IMO was founded five years before the NMB. Why the egregious slap at the organization that lead the way?

The PMA has been around forever. They are the most important reference for marketers. Why ignore the PMA?

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The following list includes produce industry and mango industry associations and organizations, both in the U.S. and in the various producing countries. These groups are not affiliated with the National Mango Board, but they can be a great source of tools, assistance and information.
Web site
United States
Maitland, FL 32794
(321) 214-5200
(321) 214-0210
FRESH PRODUCE ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERICASLance Jungmeyer590 E. Frontage Rd. Nogales AZ 85621(520) 287-2707
(520) 287-2948
Nicole Southwell
901 Business Park Drive
Suite 500
Mission, TX 78572
(956) 581-8632
(956) 581-3912
Homestead, FL. 33030
UNITED FRESH PRODUCE ASSOCIATIONMiriam S. Miller1901 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Suite 1100
Washington DC 20006
(202) 303-3410
(202) 303-3433
IBRAF Instituto Brasileiro de FrutasMoacyr Fernandes, President
Mauricio Ferraz, Manager
Av. Ipiranga 952 - 12o andar, Centro
Sao Paulo SP 01040-906
VALEXPORT- Associação Dos Produtores Exportadores De Hortigranjeiros E Derivados Do Vale Do São FranciscoAlberto Galvão, Superintendent
Ana Paula, Manager
Cx .Postal Postal 120
Petrolina,PE 56302-970
Dominican Republic
Executive Director
Calle Jose Amado Soler 50, Ensanche Paraiso Santo Domingo               Dominican Republic011809
565-5603 Ext. 243
CORPEIValeria Escudero, Manager Av. Amazonas 4430 y Villalengua, Edificio Amazonas 100, Piso 8 Quito
011 593
4 268-1550 Ext. 219
4 268-1551
Executive Director
Avenida del Ejercito 707 y 9 de Octubre
Segundo Piso, Oficina 9, Guayaquil, Guayas Ecuador
4 269-0219
4 239-9325
4 229-4181
AGEXPORT - Asociación Guatemalteca de ExportadoresMarta Castañon,
Executive Director
15 Avenida 14-72 Zona 13, Ciudad Capital C.A. 01013 Guatemala011502
ANEM-Association Nationale Des Exportateurs De ManguesBernard Craan                 Claude Derenoncourt
Boulay Michel
No. 5 Santos 20 En face Santo 21, Croix des Bouquets
3701-0605 (Cellular)
FPX- Fedeeracion De Agroexportadores De HondurasMedardo Galindo,
Executive Director
Contiguo Academia Americana, San Pedro Sula, Cortes
FUNDER- Foundacion Para El Desarrollo Empresarial RuralMiguel Angel Bonilla,
Executive Director

1a. Avenida Frente a Santos & Asociados
Tegucigalpa M.D.C.,Honduras, C.A.
CONSASPROMANGO- Comite Nacional Sistema Producto Mango AcTomás Paulín Nava, President                         Oscar Sumano,
Av. Insurgentes #1930 C.P. 28111 Tecomín, Colima, Mexico01152
EMEX- Empacadoras De Mango De Exporacion, A.C.Myrna Castro Amaya, Adm. ManagerCalle de la Reyna 440, Col. Chapalita Oriente Zapopan, Jalisco 45040 Mexico011-52
APENN -Asociacion de Productores y Exportadores de Productos No TradicionalesEnrique Zamora, PresidentBarrio Bolonia, Iglesia San Francisco 1/2 c. arriba, Casa #1150, Apdo. 6149, Managua Nicaragua011-505
APEM- Associacion Peruana De Productores Y Exportadores De MJuan Carlos Rivera,
Executive Director
Urbanizacion San Eduardo A-2, Piura
PROMANGO-Peruvian Mango Growers AssociationAngel Gamarra, President
Cesar Chang V., Manager
Urb. San Eduardo A-2, Piura
73-31 1054
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