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Science News: Genomes of mango, pomegranate pathogens decoded ...








Subhra Priyadarshini
                                                                                            The genomes of pathogen affecting mango (left) and pomegranate have been decoded.© CIRAD & IITK






In what they claim to be the first such reports on plant pathogens from India, scientists have decoded the complete genome sequence of bacteria affecting two important fruits of the country — mango and pomegranate.




The scientists from Chandigarh-based Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), a laboratory of India's Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), have announced the fully annotated genome of theXanthomonas pathogens that infect these fruits1, 2. Interestingly, they have found that the genomes of the mango and pomegranate pathovars (highly specialized bacterial strains) are not just closely related to each other but also to that of the citrus pathogen.



The diseases caused by these Xanthomonas pathovars of mango, citrus and pomegranate were first noticed in India. "The striking similarities in the genomes suggest that India may be the probable region of origin and diversification of these fruits pathogens," says says Prabhu B. Patil, who led the IMTECH research.


The researchers mapped numerous genes of virulent and pathogenic potential. They also identified some unique genes and markers that will help in epidemiology and quarantine of these fruit pathogens.



"While a lot of research is done on the genomics and evolution of the citrus canker disease because of its worldwide significance, not much has been done to study mango and pomegranate pathogens, which are particularly devastating for India," Patil says.



India is the largest producer of mango, pomegranate and citrus fruits in the world. However, their production and export is hit by diseases caused by the pathovars of genus Xanthomonas. In mango, the disease is known as bacterial black spot and the causal agent is Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae (Xcm). In citrus, the disease is known as bacterial canker and the causal agent is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac).




"Both these pathovars are serious problems throughout the world," Patil says.



In pomegranate, the disease is known as bacterial blight or telya (oily spots) and the causal agent is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap). The pathogen threatens pomegranate cultivation in India because of its devastating effect on all parts of the plant. Though endemic to India as of now, it is a potential threat to pomegranate crops across the world, Patil contends.




The genome study, the team says, could unlock deeper aspects on the evolutionary history of bacterial phytopathogens of India.

References
Sharma, V. et al. Genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae, Strain LMG 859. J. Bacteriol. 194, 2395 (2012)
Midha, S. et al. Genome sequence of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, Strain LMG 941. J. Bacteriol. 194, 3031 (2012)

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In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso





Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia








Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

INDIA 2016 : Mango production in state likely to take a hit this year

TNN | May 22, 2016, 12.32 PM IST






Mangaluru: Vagaries of nature is expected to take a toll on the production of King of Fruits - Mango - in Karnataka this year. A combination of failure of pre-monsoon showers at the flowering and growth stage and spike in temperature in mango growing belt of the state is expected to limit the total production of mango to an estimated 12 lakh tonnes in the current season as against 14 lakh tonnes in the last calendar year.



However, the good news for fruit lovers is that this could see price of mangoes across varieties decrease marginally by 2-3%. This is mainly on account of 'import' of the fruit from other mango-growing states in India, said M Kamalakshi Rajanna, chairperson, Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Ltd.




Karnataka is the third largest mango-growing state in India after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.



Inaugurating a two-day Vasanthotsava organized by Shivarama Karantha Pilikula Nisargadhama and the Corporation at P…

Mangoes date back 65 million years according to research ...

Experts at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (BSIP) here have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf. 





The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. 




After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.


An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighbouring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. 




The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighb…