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ACCOUNTABILITY & TRACEABILITY : DO FARMERS KNOW WHAT LURKS IN THE SOIL ???



The future of traceability begins and ends with soil nutrition. Ultimately, this will define and diferentaite one farmer's piece of fruit from another.

Technology exists to compare trace elements (That ultimately come from the soil that Agricultural Commodities are grown in).




Soil remediation is part of the solution...






Articles in English
Arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns: a review
The Chinese Ladder fern Pteris vittata, also known as the brake fern, is a highly efficient accumulator of arsenic.  P. vittatagrows rapidly and can absorb up to 2% of its weight in arsenic.  It can extract arsenic from soil even where the level is low, for example 6 ppm, which is normal for many soils. When it grown on soil with 100 ppm not only did it absorb more arsenic, but it grew 40% larger than normal.link to complete article, page 8 ]
Researchers Genetically Alter Plants Hoping They'll Vacuum Up Toxins
October 15, 2007 — By Julie Steenhuysen, Reuter
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Scientists hope they've figured out a way to trick plants into doing the dirty work of environmental cleanup, U.S. and British researchers said on Monday.   "Our work is in the beginning stages, but it holds great promise," said Sharon Doty, an assistant professor of forest resources at the University of Washington, whose study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences....
link to complete article ]
Phytoremediation: novel approaches to cleaning up polluted soils
Ute Krämer - from Current Opinions in Biotechnology, 16:133-141 (2005) .
Environmental pollution with metals and xenobiotics is a global problem, and the development of phytoremediation technologies for the plant-based clean-up of contaminated soils is therefore of significant interest. Phytoremediation technologies are currently available for only a small subset of pollution problems, such as arsenic. Arsenic removal employs naturally selected hyperaccumulator ferns, which accumulate very high concentrations of arsenic specifically in aboveground tissues. Elegant two-gene transgenic approaches have been designed for the development of mercury or arsenic phytoremediation technologies. In a plant that naturally hyperaccumulates zinc in leaves, approximately ten key metal homeostasis genes are expressed at very high levels. This outlines the extent of change in gene activities needed in the engineering of transgenic plants for soil clean-up. Further analysis and discovery of genes for phytoremediation will benefit from the recent development of segregating populations for a genetic analysis of naturally selected metal hyperaccumulation in plants, and from comprehensive ionomics data – multi-element concentration profiles from a large number of Arabidopsis mutants. 

chemical
                  reactions
Above:  Chemical reactions in transgenic phytoremediation:
(a) detoxification and volatilization of organomercurials.
(b) Arsenate detoxification and immobilization.
(c) Selenite detoxification.
AdoMet, S-adenosylmethionine; GSH, glutathione (reduced); GS-SG, oxidized glutathione; Me, methyl; SMM, S-methylmethionine.




From Green to Clean

Merging Genes Could Create Plants That Clean Contaminated Ground






- Rachel Melcer, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 18, 2004







St. Louis - In a Creve Coeur, Mo., laboratory, biochemists Joe Jez and Tom Smith are working toward a day when plants and trees will replace earthmovers and landfills in cleaning contaminated industrial sites.




 The duo, who work at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, are advancing a method of phytoremediation, a broad term that refers to using green plants to absorb or break down contaminants in soil, sludge, sediment and groundwater.






Jez has identified a gene that allows certain plants to thrive in soil
contaminated with cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Smith has found a different gene that helps some bacteria to capture and transport zinc, which is important for nutrition but can be threatening at high
concentrations. They would like to augment and transfer both traits to large, fast-growing plants and trees, enabling them to store various heavy-metal pollutants absorbed from the ground. 





The plants could be harvested and incinerated, leaving a relatively small amount of ash for proper disposal. <more>
[ link to complete article







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THE MOST SOUGHT AFTER MANGOES IN THE WORLD ....

While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???





In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso





Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia








Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

INDIA 2016 : Mango production in state likely to take a hit this year

TNN | May 22, 2016, 12.32 PM IST






Mangaluru: Vagaries of nature is expected to take a toll on the production of King of Fruits - Mango - in Karnataka this year. A combination of failure of pre-monsoon showers at the flowering and growth stage and spike in temperature in mango growing belt of the state is expected to limit the total production of mango to an estimated 12 lakh tonnes in the current season as against 14 lakh tonnes in the last calendar year.



However, the good news for fruit lovers is that this could see price of mangoes across varieties decrease marginally by 2-3%. This is mainly on account of 'import' of the fruit from other mango-growing states in India, said M Kamalakshi Rajanna, chairperson, Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Ltd.




Karnataka is the third largest mango-growing state in India after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.



Inaugurating a two-day Vasanthotsava organized by Shivarama Karantha Pilikula Nisargadhama and the Corporation at P…