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ACCOUNTABILITY & TRACEABILITY : DO FARMERS KNOW WHAT LURKS IN THE SOIL ???



The future of traceability begins and ends with soil nutrition. Ultimately, this will define and diferentaite one farmer's piece of fruit from another.

Technology exists to compare trace elements (That ultimately come from the soil that Agricultural Commodities are grown in).




Soil remediation is part of the solution...






Articles in English
Arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns: a review
The Chinese Ladder fern Pteris vittata, also known as the brake fern, is a highly efficient accumulator of arsenic.  P. vittatagrows rapidly and can absorb up to 2% of its weight in arsenic.  It can extract arsenic from soil even where the level is low, for example 6 ppm, which is normal for many soils. When it grown on soil with 100 ppm not only did it absorb more arsenic, but it grew 40% larger than normal.link to complete article, page 8 ]
Researchers Genetically Alter Plants Hoping They'll Vacuum Up Toxins
October 15, 2007 — By Julie Steenhuysen, Reuter
CHICAGO (Reuters) - Scientists hope they've figured out a way to trick plants into doing the dirty work of environmental cleanup, U.S. and British researchers said on Monday.   "Our work is in the beginning stages, but it holds great promise," said Sharon Doty, an assistant professor of forest resources at the University of Washington, whose study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences....
link to complete article ]
Phytoremediation: novel approaches to cleaning up polluted soils
Ute Krämer - from Current Opinions in Biotechnology, 16:133-141 (2005) .
Environmental pollution with metals and xenobiotics is a global problem, and the development of phytoremediation technologies for the plant-based clean-up of contaminated soils is therefore of significant interest. Phytoremediation technologies are currently available for only a small subset of pollution problems, such as arsenic. Arsenic removal employs naturally selected hyperaccumulator ferns, which accumulate very high concentrations of arsenic specifically in aboveground tissues. Elegant two-gene transgenic approaches have been designed for the development of mercury or arsenic phytoremediation technologies. In a plant that naturally hyperaccumulates zinc in leaves, approximately ten key metal homeostasis genes are expressed at very high levels. This outlines the extent of change in gene activities needed in the engineering of transgenic plants for soil clean-up. Further analysis and discovery of genes for phytoremediation will benefit from the recent development of segregating populations for a genetic analysis of naturally selected metal hyperaccumulation in plants, and from comprehensive ionomics data – multi-element concentration profiles from a large number of Arabidopsis mutants. 

chemical
                  reactions
Above:  Chemical reactions in transgenic phytoremediation:
(a) detoxification and volatilization of organomercurials.
(b) Arsenate detoxification and immobilization.
(c) Selenite detoxification.
AdoMet, S-adenosylmethionine; GSH, glutathione (reduced); GS-SG, oxidized glutathione; Me, methyl; SMM, S-methylmethionine.




From Green to Clean

Merging Genes Could Create Plants That Clean Contaminated Ground






- Rachel Melcer, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 18, 2004







St. Louis - In a Creve Coeur, Mo., laboratory, biochemists Joe Jez and Tom Smith are working toward a day when plants and trees will replace earthmovers and landfills in cleaning contaminated industrial sites.




 The duo, who work at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, are advancing a method of phytoremediation, a broad term that refers to using green plants to absorb or break down contaminants in soil, sludge, sediment and groundwater.






Jez has identified a gene that allows certain plants to thrive in soil
contaminated with cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Smith has found a different gene that helps some bacteria to capture and transport zinc, which is important for nutrition but can be threatening at high
concentrations. They would like to augment and transfer both traits to large, fast-growing plants and trees, enabling them to store various heavy-metal pollutants absorbed from the ground. 





The plants could be harvested and incinerated, leaving a relatively small amount of ash for proper disposal. <more>
[ link to complete article







Popular posts from this blog

THE MOST SOUGHT AFTER MANGOES IN THE WORLD ....

While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???





In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso





Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia








Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

Mangoes date back 65 million years according to research ...

Experts at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (BSIP) here have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf. 





The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. 




After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.


An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighbouring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. 




The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighb…

DHL (INDIA) makes gifting mangoes as easy as 1-2-3-....

Gifting mangoes is now easy with DHL
Announcement / Corporate


 May 19, 2011, 14:04 IST





Come this summer pamper your loved ones abroad with a box of delicious mangoes through DHL’s Express Easy Mango service, a unique one-stop-shop and hassle-free service for gifting mangoes all across the world.






This unique service by DHL Express, the world’s leading express company, allows customers to send mangoes from India across the world to the following countries Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Hong Kong, Italy, Luxemburg, Maldives, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Qatar Singapore, Switzerland and Sweden.





Mangoes can be availed of free of cost by merely paying for the Air Express service. In addition, DHL Express assists customers with the necessary paperwork along with procurement of quality-grade Alphonso mangoes.





Commenting on the new service, Mr. R.S Subramanian, Country Head, DHL Express India said: “With the advent of the mango season, it is no wonder that DHL Express Ea…