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Here is the grant that the National Mango Board (NMB) is falsely taking credit for















IMPACT OF WASH WATER DISINFECTANTS ON SALMONELLA ENTERICA TRANSFER AND SURVIVAL IN MANGO PACKING FACILITY WATER TANK OPERATIONS
DATE




Jan. 1, 2015 - Dec. 31, 2016









FUNDING AGENCY


University of Connecticut





AMOUNT AWARDED

$142,166.00





INVESTIGATOR

Mary Anne Amalaradjou, Ph.D.
University of Connecticut









SUMMARY




Foodborne outbreaks associated with consumption of raw mangoes have been traced back to the use of contaminated wash water. This highlights the critical role of wash water disinfection in mango processing, affecting its quality, and safety. While investigations on the efficacy of disinfectants to reduce pathogens on other fruits have been performed, no studies have been conducted on mangoes.


 Therefore, this study will investigate the efficacy of different disinfectants (chlorine, peracetic acid and FIT fruit and vegetable wash solutions) for killing Salmonella on mangoes and prevention of water–to-mango cross contamination. The study will be performed under conditions that simulate dump tank washing, hot water treatment and hydrocooling. 


Additionally, the study will investigate the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde, a GRAS status antimicrobial for use as a natural, alternative disinfectant in mango wash water. It is expected that this study will provide insight into the efficacy of disinfectants to inactivate Salmonella in mango packing facility water operations. Furthermore, this proposal will help understand the role of organic load in mango wash water on disinfectant efficacy. 



In conclusion, the proposed research is expected to help develop best practices regarding post-harvest washing and disinfection of mangoes to control Salmonella and other potentially pathogenic organisms.









Technical Abstract

Mangoes have been associated with foodborne outbreaks involving different serovars of Salmonella, including S. Oranienburg (1998),S. Newport (1999) and S. Saintpaul (2001 and 2003). 



A common theme in these outbreaks was the source of contamination which was traced back to wash water used in hydrocooling. 



In order to reduce mango flesh temperature following hot water treatment, mango producers practice hydrocooling. 


 However, it has been shown that cooling of fruit following heat treatment can lead to potential pathogen internalization into mangoes. 


Since there are no available technologies to inactivate internalized pathogens, wash water disinfection is a critical processing step in mango production, affecting its quality, safety and shelf-life.



 Although several commercially available chemical disinfectants are approved for use in wash water, chlorine is the most commonly used chemical sanitizer in the fresh produce industry. 


Besides chlorine, other commercially used wash solutions include peracetic acid based disinfectants and natural alternatives such as FIT vegetable and fruit wash. Although investigations on the efficacy of disinfectants to reduce pathogens on other fruits such as cantaloupe, berries, and apples have been performed, no studies have been conducted on mangoes. 



 Additionally, most studies have not examined the effect of organic matter on the antimicrobial efficacy of disinfectants. Furthermore, there are several unique differences in the post-harvest management practices for mangoes when compared to other fruits. Therefore, these reasons warrant the need for an investigation into the efficacy of different disinfectants on pathogen inactivation on mangoes and in mango wash water operations. 



 Hence this study will be undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of water disinfectants on pathogen inactivation in presence and absence of organic matter. In order to simulate the mango packing facility water tank operations, the effect of disinfectants on Salmonella transfer from water-to-mango and its control on mango surface will be done in three different stages to mimic washing in the dump tank, hot water treatment and hydrocooling. 




Additionally, the study will also investigate the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde, a GRAS status antimicrobial for use as a wash water disinfectant in the mango industry. 



Trans-cinnamaldehyde was selected as a potential candidate based on its antimicrobial effect on other produce as established in scientific literature. 



Through these objectives, the proposed research will provide insight into the efficacy of disinfectants for pathogen inactivation during mango washing operations and the role of organic matter on disinfectant effectiveness.




 This in turn will help develop best management practices regarding post-harvest washing of mangoes and yield potential water disinfection treatments for application in the mango industry.








https://cps.ucdavis.edu/researchproject/375/awards/Impact_of_wash_water_disinfectants_on_Salmonella_enterica_transfer_and_survival_in_mango_packing_facility_water_tank_operations.html

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In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso





Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia








Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

INDIA 2016 : Mango production in state likely to take a hit this year

TNN | May 22, 2016, 12.32 PM IST






Mangaluru: Vagaries of nature is expected to take a toll on the production of King of Fruits - Mango - in Karnataka this year. A combination of failure of pre-monsoon showers at the flowering and growth stage and spike in temperature in mango growing belt of the state is expected to limit the total production of mango to an estimated 12 lakh tonnes in the current season as against 14 lakh tonnes in the last calendar year.



However, the good news for fruit lovers is that this could see price of mangoes across varieties decrease marginally by 2-3%. This is mainly on account of 'import' of the fruit from other mango-growing states in India, said M Kamalakshi Rajanna, chairperson, Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Ltd.




Karnataka is the third largest mango-growing state in India after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.



Inaugurating a two-day Vasanthotsava organized by Shivarama Karantha Pilikula Nisargadhama and the Corporation at P…

Mangoes date back 65 million years according to research ...

Experts at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (BSIP) here have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf. 





The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. 




After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.


An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighbouring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. 




The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighb…