Skip to main content

The Economist explains : The fuss about graphene













Jun 9th 2015, 23:50 BY A.A.K.

















BY WEIGHT, it is 100 times stronger than steel, yet it can stretch by as much as a quarter of its length. 


Graphene is the thinnest solid ever known, indeed the thinnest possible: it is a sheet of linked carbon atoms just one atom thick. 




It is a great conductor of electricity and nearly transparent to visible light, but is impermeable to gases and liquids. It has so many surprising properties that it has been dubbed a "wonder material" and has earned its discoverers a Nobel prize. 



Graphene-related patents have shot up from 3,018 in 2011 to 8,416 in 2014, the year the European Union launched a ten-year, billion-euro project to unravel the wonder material's mysteries. 




Why does graphene stir such interest?





The fuss began in 2003 when Andre Geim and his student Konstantin Novoselov, physicists at the Manchester University, first peeled layers of the stuff from graphite using sticky tape. 



Atom-thick sheets were thought so unlikely to be stable that the pair's report was rejected, twice, by the journal Nature. 



Once the Manchester pair was proved right, a flurry of studies began to measure the properties of the stuff. 



Graphene was found to be incredibly strong, and electric current zipped across it with virtually no loss, up to 200-times faster than in silicon—not far off the speed of light. 




The material's strength was soon touted in graphene-enhanced sports kit such as tennis racquets and skis. 



Graphene is not good at controlling or switching electric current, so making faster computers with it remains tricky. 



But applications such as touchscreens exploit its conductive nature. The material has found its way into better, lighter batteries and, in a few months' time, the first graphene light bulb will go on sale.













Plenty of research is going into joining other atoms to the graphene lattice, to make it do what electrical engineers would like. 




The material could help with water purification and desalination efforts; thin graphene sheets with holes just large enough for water molecules could sequester pollutants, while thin tubes lined with it could draw up water and leave salt behind.



Its pliable nature makes it suitable for wearable electronics with flexible displays—or even transparent ones. 


Pairs of electrons moving through graphene can be made to split up, making for "entangled states" that physicists would like to put to use in so-called quantum computers. 




There are biological applications, too; a team at the Michigan Technological University is experimenting with a graphene-bound polymer that regenerates nerve cells in patients with spinal-cord injuries. 



Even birth control could be improved by graphene's strength and impermeability to liquids; in 2013, the Gates Foundation put $100,000 into an effort to develop a graphene-enhanced condom.




Ideas for using graphene are proliferating almost at the speed at which electrons move within it. 



Detractors insist that interest in the material is a bubble bound to burst, and that claiming graphene as an ingredient in a product is more about marketing than innovation. 



But naysayers would do well to remember the history of silicon, which was purified a full century before it found much use; now it is the centrepiece of the global electronics industry.




 An understanding of what graphene is capable of, and how to make lots of it, has bloomed in far less time. 




If even a fraction of the applications envisaged for it take off, graphene will have earned its nickname as a wonder material. 




Dig deeper:









http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/06/economist-explains-7?fsrc=scn/fb/wl/ee/st/thefussaboutgrapheneEE

Popular posts from this blog

MEET MELANIA TRUMP: The 5'11" supermodel married to Donald Trump

Aly Weisman, INSIDER

Sep. 2, 2015, 3:28 PM 











Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images







While Donald Trump loves to be the center of media attention, his third and current wife, Melania Trump, is a bit more camera shy.










The Slovenian-born model keeps a lower profile than her husband, doing philanthropy work, raising their son, working on a jewelry collection with QVC, and creating a $150-an-ounce caviar moisturizer.




With Trump on the campaign trail, Melania has stoically stood by his side.




But who exactly is Melania and where did she come from? Learn about Trump's other half here ...





Melania Knauss was born April 26, 1970, in Slovenia.




Wikimedia/Getty







The 5'11" brunette began her modeling career at 16, and signed with a modeling agency in Milan at 18.



Chris Hondros/Newsmakers via Getty









She took a break from modeling to get her degree in design and architecture at the University of Ljubljana in Slovenia.








Wikimedia/Getty

Source: MelaniaTrump.com









But after graduating, her modeling career took off and Me…

THE MOST SOUGHT AFTER MANGOES IN THE WORLD ....

While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???





In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso





Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia








Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

INDIA 2016 : Mango production in state likely to take a hit this year

TNN | May 22, 2016, 12.32 PM IST






Mangaluru: Vagaries of nature is expected to take a toll on the production of King of Fruits - Mango - in Karnataka this year. A combination of failure of pre-monsoon showers at the flowering and growth stage and spike in temperature in mango growing belt of the state is expected to limit the total production of mango to an estimated 12 lakh tonnes in the current season as against 14 lakh tonnes in the last calendar year.



However, the good news for fruit lovers is that this could see price of mangoes across varieties decrease marginally by 2-3%. This is mainly on account of 'import' of the fruit from other mango-growing states in India, said M Kamalakshi Rajanna, chairperson, Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Ltd.




Karnataka is the third largest mango-growing state in India after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.



Inaugurating a two-day Vasanthotsava organized by Shivarama Karantha Pilikula Nisargadhama and the Corporation at P…