Skip to main content


Optimization of antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in mango peels using response surface methodology

Choose an option to locate/access this article:
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution
Check access


Experimental design was useful for extraction optimization of mango peel.
Solid to liquid ratio had significant effect on yield, EPC, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidative activities.
Ethanol concentration and temperature had significant effects on the response values.
The optimized condition: ethanol proportion of 49%, temperature of 61 °C, and time of 221 min.


The aim of this study is to use a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimize the ethanolic extraction of polyphenol compounds from mango peels. 

The Nam-Dokmai peel (NDP) showed significantly higher phenolic compounds and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than that of the Tong-Dam peel (TDP) (p < 0.05). A solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:30 was fixed for the RSM. The independent processing variables applied to the RSM were the ethanol concentrations, temperatures, and extraction times. The results show that the second-order polynomial models derived from the responses correlated well with the experimental data (R2 > 0.80). The ethanol concentrations and temperature variables significantly affected antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). 

A low ethanol concentration and a high temperature produced an increased yield while high ethanol concentration and high temperature was the most effective for increasing extractable phenolic content (EPC) and antioxidative activities. Therefore, the optimal conditions that maximized the extraction yields, EPC, and the antioxidant activities for NDP were ethanol proportion of 49%, a temperature of 61 °C, and an extraction time of 221 min.


  • Antioxidant
  • Ethanolic extraction
  • Mango peel
  • Response surface methodology
Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 53 916752; fax: +66 53 916737.

Popular posts from this blog


While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???

In alphabetical order by Country....



Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 

It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

INDIA 2016 : Mango production in state likely to take a hit this year

TNN | May 22, 2016, 12.32 PM IST

Mangaluru: Vagaries of nature is expected to take a toll on the production of King of Fruits - Mango - in Karnataka this year. A combination of failure of pre-monsoon showers at the flowering and growth stage and spike in temperature in mango growing belt of the state is expected to limit the total production of mango to an estimated 12 lakh tonnes in the current season as against 14 lakh tonnes in the last calendar year.

However, the good news for fruit lovers is that this could see price of mangoes across varieties decrease marginally by 2-3%. This is mainly on account of 'import' of the fruit from other mango-growing states in India, said M Kamalakshi Rajanna, chairperson, Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Ltd.

Karnataka is the third largest mango-growing state in India after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Inaugurating a two-day Vasanthotsava organized by Shivarama Karantha Pilikula Nisargadhama and the Corporation at P…

Mangoes date back 65 million years according to research ...

Experts at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (BSIP) here have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf. 

The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. 

After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.

An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighbouring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. 

The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighb…