Skip to main content


Optimization of antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in mango peels using response surface methodology

Choose an option to locate/access this article:
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution
Check access


Experimental design was useful for extraction optimization of mango peel.
Solid to liquid ratio had significant effect on yield, EPC, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidative activities.
Ethanol concentration and temperature had significant effects on the response values.
The optimized condition: ethanol proportion of 49%, temperature of 61 °C, and time of 221 min.


The aim of this study is to use a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimize the ethanolic extraction of polyphenol compounds from mango peels. 

The Nam-Dokmai peel (NDP) showed significantly higher phenolic compounds and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than that of the Tong-Dam peel (TDP) (p < 0.05). A solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:30 was fixed for the RSM. The independent processing variables applied to the RSM were the ethanol concentrations, temperatures, and extraction times. The results show that the second-order polynomial models derived from the responses correlated well with the experimental data (R2 > 0.80). The ethanol concentrations and temperature variables significantly affected antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). 

A low ethanol concentration and a high temperature produced an increased yield while high ethanol concentration and high temperature was the most effective for increasing extractable phenolic content (EPC) and antioxidative activities. Therefore, the optimal conditions that maximized the extraction yields, EPC, and the antioxidant activities for NDP were ethanol proportion of 49%, a temperature of 61 °C, and an extraction time of 221 min.


  • Antioxidant
  • Ethanolic extraction
  • Mango peel
  • Response surface methodology
Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 53 916752; fax: +66 53 916737.

Popular posts from this blog


While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???

In alphabetical order by Country....



Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 

It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

Mangoes date back 65 million years according to research ...

Experts at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (BSIP) here have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf. 

The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. 

After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.

An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighbouring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. 

The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighb…

DHL (INDIA) makes gifting mangoes as easy as 1-2-3-....

Gifting mangoes is now easy with DHL
Announcement / Corporate

 May 19, 2011, 14:04 IST

Come this summer pamper your loved ones abroad with a box of delicious mangoes through DHL’s Express Easy Mango service, a unique one-stop-shop and hassle-free service for gifting mangoes all across the world.

This unique service by DHL Express, the world’s leading express company, allows customers to send mangoes from India across the world to the following countries Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Hong Kong, Italy, Luxemburg, Maldives, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Qatar Singapore, Switzerland and Sweden.

Mangoes can be availed of free of cost by merely paying for the Air Express service. In addition, DHL Express assists customers with the necessary paperwork along with procurement of quality-grade Alphonso mangoes.

Commenting on the new service, Mr. R.S Subramanian, Country Head, DHL Express India said: “With the advent of the mango season, it is no wonder that DHL Express Ea…