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VOLCANO THREATENS MANGO SEASON IN ECUADOR












ERIK KLEMETTI 



SCIENCE 


DATE OF PUBLICATION: 08.27.15.08.27.15
TIME OF PUBLICATION: 12:47 PM.12:47 PM








COTOPAXI KEEPS RUMBLING AS ECUADOR PREPARES FOR ERUPTION












 


Click to Open Overlay GalleryBillowing ash from this week's eruptions of Cotopaxi in Ecuador, taken from near Chilcabamba Eco Lodge. LUCAS BUSTAMANTE / DESTINATION ECUADOR (USED BY PERMISSION)




Cotopaxi in Ecuador continues to rumble after its first eruption in 70 years earlier this month. Over the last week, the volcano has been emitting almost constant steam-and-ash plumes punctuated by small explosions—all signs that magma is rising into the volcano. 


The steam-and-ash plumes have mostly been 1-2 kilometers in height and rangers in the National Park surrounding the volcano have reported a few millimeters of fine ash fall. 



You can check out some pictures of how this ash is impacting the local communities, where farmers have said that their livestock is beginning feel the effects. Ash from Cotopaxi has reached as far as the Pacific Ocean (see below) during this week of unrest. Dozens of earthquakes along with constant harmonic tremor were recorded at Cotopaxi over the last day as well.

The Ecuadoran government has been preparing for evacuations if the activity intensifies and has earmarked ~$500 million for potential damage and displacement due to an eruption.





 



Click to Open Overlay GalleryThe ash plume from Cotopaxi (grey-brown) seen drifting to the west over the Pacific Ocean on August 26, 2015. NASA – TERRA/MODIS






Now, if a restless volcano on the doorstep of a large population center wasn’t bad enough, the government is being besieged by protests from opposition parties who are unhappy with the Ecuadoran president Rafael Correa. 



He has made it clear that his number one priority is preparing for Cotopaxi’s potential eruption, but the civil unrest in Quito has continued. 







Farmers in those regions grow flowers and broccoli for export, and a large eruption from Cotopaxi could cause over $100 million in damage to those crops. Ash has also put a damper already on ecotourism in the area around the volcano.




Even soccer clubs have made contingency plans if Cotopaxi’s eruptions become larger, really showing how seriously the local citizenry are taking this rumbling.




Meanwhile, Tungurahua, one of Ecuador’s other active volcanoes, is also erupting. The latest report from IG-EPN lists ash plumes reaching 2 kilometers over the volcano from a series of small explosions with constant tremor.





You can check out webcams pointed at both Cotopaxi andTungurahua.







http://www.wired.com/2015/08/cotopaxi-continues-rumble-ecuador-prepares-eruption/

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In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso





Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia








Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

INDIA 2016 : Mango production in state likely to take a hit this year

TNN | May 22, 2016, 12.32 PM IST






Mangaluru: Vagaries of nature is expected to take a toll on the production of King of Fruits - Mango - in Karnataka this year. A combination of failure of pre-monsoon showers at the flowering and growth stage and spike in temperature in mango growing belt of the state is expected to limit the total production of mango to an estimated 12 lakh tonnes in the current season as against 14 lakh tonnes in the last calendar year.



However, the good news for fruit lovers is that this could see price of mangoes across varieties decrease marginally by 2-3%. This is mainly on account of 'import' of the fruit from other mango-growing states in India, said M Kamalakshi Rajanna, chairperson, Karnataka State Mango Development and Marketing Corporation Ltd.




Karnataka is the third largest mango-growing state in India after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.



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Mangoes date back 65 million years according to research ...

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The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. 




After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.


An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighbouring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. 




The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighb…