Skip to main content

Mooving manure beyond drug-resistant bacteria
















 






by Staff Writers
Washington DC (SPX) Nov 06, 2015









Stockpiled manure from cattle treated with antibiotics are pictured. The heat generated in the pile kills most bacteria in the interior of the manure pyramid, but may not reach the exterior of the pile. Image courtesy Mr. Andrew Olsen at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. For a larger version of this image please go here.











Manure management is serious business for a meat-hungry world. A single cow, depending on its size, can generate between 43 and 120 pounds of manure a day. Cow manure can be a low-cost fertilizer for farmers' crops. But manure can also host antimicrobial resistant bacteria.




Most bacteria are harmless. However, infamous pathogens that can originate from cattle manure include E. coli, Salmonella, and Yersinia. These bacteria can have grave side effects like fever, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting.






Tim McAllister is a principal research scientist in ruminant microbiology and nutrition at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Alberta, Canada. 



McAllister and his colleagues have been testing creative ways to target antimicrobial resistance genes in manure.




"Not all bacteria are bad,"  said McAllister, "The trick is finding which become resistant and whether or not those will affect human health."



Antimicrobials are fed or injected into cattle every year to keep cattle healthy. 



But there's a downside to the use of antibiotics: "When you use antibiotics, bacterial resistance is inevitable," said McAllister,


"There's always trade-offs in nature. It really is a matter of which bacteria become resistant and if it has any implications for human health."



In cattle, antibiotic residues can be excreted in feces and urine.



"Even the most pristine soils harbor antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Then it's a matter of figuring out if these resistant bacteria exchange DNA with other bacteria that could cause human infections. It's a remote possibility considering that most bacteria that survive well in the human body do less well in the broader environment," McAllister says.




Fortunately, most bacteria can't survive high temperatures. 



For this reason, farmers employ "manure-cooking" strategies to kill bacteria before it's applied to the land. 



One strategy is to stockpile manure in large pyramid-shaped mounds. The heat generated by the dense piles of manure acts as an oven.




Most bacteria die after being exposed to temperatures above 131 degrees Fahrenheit or higher over a period of a few days. Windrow composting is another type of manure management. 



Instead of large, passive piles, the manure is kept in long rows and is regularly churned to extend the heating period with temperatures as high as 160 degrees Fahrenheit.





Researchers wanted to know which method was most reliable to kill the bacteria and degrade the DNA associated with antibiotic resistance. 


They used manure from cattle treated with various antibiotics to find that composting works best for killing bacteria with resistance genes. The mixing process also speeds up decomposition and reduces the volume of manure.




"Composting is an active process," McAllister said, "You churn up the manure so that all the materials achieve a higher temperature."



Storing manure in stockpiles works, but not as thoroughly. The heat tends to concentrate in the middle of the pile and doesn't reach the outer edges.



Future experiments could observe the journey of bacteria from farm to the surrounding environment. 



McAllister described an ideal "systems approach" experiment to discover where resistant bacteria end up if it hasn't been destroyed by composting or stockpiling.


"The concentration of bacteria is the issue, and if those concentrations travel. The journey for most bacteria from the animal through the environment to people is a tough one, Most bacteria do not make it. Manure management practices such as composting and stockpiling can make this journey for bacteria even more difficult,"  he said.



Tracking the dynamics of this bacterial journey requires a host of scientists and a lot of grant writing.



"Not my favorite part," says McAllister. "But I do love moving into new areas of research."









http://www.interndaily.com/reports/Mooving_manure_beyond_drug_resistant_bacteria_999.html








Popular posts from this blog

MEET MELANIA TRUMP: The 5'11" supermodel married to Donald Trump

Aly Weisman, INSIDER

Sep. 2, 2015, 3:28 PM 










Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images







While Donald Trump loves to be the center of media attention, his third and current wife, Melania Trump, is a bit more camera shy.










The Slovenian-born model keeps a lower profile than her husband, doing philanthropy work, raising their son, working on a jewelry collection with QVC, and creating a $150-an-ounce caviar moisturizer.



With Trump on the campaign trail, Melania has stoically stood by his side.



But who exactly is Melania and where did she come from? Learn about Trump's other half here ...




Melania Knauss was born April 26, 1970, in Slovenia.



Wikimedia/Getty







The 5'11" brunette began her modeling career at 16, and signed with a modeling agency in Milan at 18.


Chris Hondros/Newsmakers via Getty









She took a break from modeling to get her degree in design and architecture at the University of Ljubljana in Slovenia.







Wikimedia/Getty

Source: MelaniaTrump.com









But after graduating, her modeling career took off and Me…

THE MOST SOUGHT AFTER MANGOES IN THE WORLD ....

While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???





In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso




Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia







Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

7 Medicinal Properties Of Mango Leaves That You Aren’t Aware Of!

By admin

• On December 11, 2016 • 



Many of us know how delicious mangoes are!




Basically, mangoes are very nutritious and healthy to eat regularly, where not only just kids but also adults love to eat. These mangoes are only found in the large areas of India and it is said to be the hub of mangoes where huge quantities of mangoes are exported from this country to all the countries.


When we look into mango leaves­ they’re basically like the all other leaves i.e. green in color.
 At first they’re reddish in color and as they grow­ they turn into dark greenish color.

Mango leaves are rich in:
Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Also rich in flavonoids and phenols
Have powerful antioxidant properties



These were just the qualities of these leaves­ now we’ll understand about the importance of these leaves and the medical impact on the human body.


1. Diabetes


These leaves are rich in tannins called anthocyanidins­ useful for treating diabetes in the early stage.
The method of using these leaves is simple­ first w…