Skip to main content

The Forgotten European Slaves of Barbary North Africa and Ottoman Turkey





















Published on Feb 4, 2016







Ohio State University history Professor Robert Davis describes the White Slave Trade as minimized by most modern historians in his book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800 (Palgrave Macmillan). 





Davis estimates that 1 million to 1.25 million white Christian Europeans were enslaved in North Africa, from the beginning of the 16th century to the middle of the 18th, by slave traders from Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli alone (these numbers do not include the European people which were enslaved by Morocco and by other raiders and traders of the Mediterranean Sea coast), 16th- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbul's additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700.



 The markets declined after the loss of the Barbary Wars and finally ended in the 1830s, when the region was conquered by France.


Hundreds of thousands of Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries. 



These slave raids were conducted largely by Arabs and Berbers rather than Ottoman Turks.


 However, during the height of the Barbary slave trade in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Barbary states were subject to Ottoman jurisdiction and ruled by Ottoman pashas.


 Furthermore, many slaves captured by the Barbary corsairs were sold eastward into Ottoman territories before, during, and after Barbary's period of Ottoman rule.




The Barbary Muslim pirates kidnapped Europeans from ships in North Africa’s coastal waters (Barbary Coast). 


They also attacked and pillaged the Atlantic coastal fishing villages and town in Europe, enslaving the inhabitants.


 Villages and towns on the coast of Italy, Spain, Portugal and France were the hardest hit. 


Muslim slave-raiders also seized people as far afield as Britain, Ireland and Iceland.

In 1544, the island of Ischia off Naples was ransacked, taking 4,000 inhabitants prisoners, while some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari Island off the north coast of Sicily were enslaved.


Turgut Reis, a Turkish pirate chief, ransacked the coastal settlements of Granada (Spain) in 1663 and carried away 4,000 people as slaves.


 In 1625, Barbary pirates captured the Lund Island in the Bristol Channel and planted the standard of Islam. 


From this base, they went ransacking and pillaging surrounding villages and towns, causing a stunning spectacle of mayhem, slaughter and plunder. 



According to Milton, ‘Day after day, they struck at unarmed fishing communities, seizing the inhabitants, and burning their homes. 


By the end of the dreadful summer of 1625, the mayor of Plymouth reckoned that 1,000 skiffs had been destroyed and similar number of villagers carried off into slavery.


Between 1609 and 1616, the Barbary pirates ‘captured a staggering 466 English trading ships.’


In 1627, Pirates went on a pillaging and enslaving campaign to Iceland. After dropping anchor at Reykjavik, his forces ransacked the town and returned with 400 men, women and children and sold them in Algiers. 



In 1631, he made a voyage with a brigand of 200 pirates to the coast of Southern Ireland and ransacked and pillaged the village of Baltimore, carrying away 237 men, women and children to Algiers.

The barbaric slave-raiding activities of the Muslim pirates had a telling effect on Europe. France, England, and Spain lost thousands of ships, devastating to their sea-borne trade. 


Long stretches of the coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants until the nineteenth century. The finishing industry was virtually devastated.



Paul Baepler’s White Slaves, African Masters: An Anthology of American Barbary Captivity Narratives lists a collection of essays by nine American captives held in North Africa. 



According to his book, there were more than 20,000 white Christian slaves by 1620 in Algiers alone; their number swelled to more than 30,000 men and 2,000 women by the 1630s. 



There were a minimum of 25,000 white slaves at any time in Sultan Moulay Ismail’s palace, records Ahmed ez-Zayyani; Algiers maintained a population of 25,000 white slaves between 1550 and 1730, and their numbers could double at certain times. 



During the same period, Tunis and Tripoli each maintained a white slave population of about 7,500. 


The Barbary pirates enslaved some 5,000 Europeans annually over a period of nearly three centuries.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary...



Popular posts from this blog

MEET MELANIA TRUMP: The 5'11" supermodel married to Donald Trump

Aly Weisman, INSIDER

Sep. 2, 2015, 3:28 PM 










Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images







While Donald Trump loves to be the center of media attention, his third and current wife, Melania Trump, is a bit more camera shy.










The Slovenian-born model keeps a lower profile than her husband, doing philanthropy work, raising their son, working on a jewelry collection with QVC, and creating a $150-an-ounce caviar moisturizer.



With Trump on the campaign trail, Melania has stoically stood by his side.



But who exactly is Melania and where did she come from? Learn about Trump's other half here ...




Melania Knauss was born April 26, 1970, in Slovenia.



Wikimedia/Getty







The 5'11" brunette began her modeling career at 16, and signed with a modeling agency in Milan at 18.


Chris Hondros/Newsmakers via Getty









She took a break from modeling to get her degree in design and architecture at the University of Ljubljana in Slovenia.







Wikimedia/Getty

Source: MelaniaTrump.com









But after graduating, her modeling career took off and Me…

THE MOST SOUGHT AFTER MANGOES IN THE WORLD ....

While "Flavor" is very subjective, and each country that grows mangoes is very nationalistic, these are the mango varieties that are the most sought after around the world because of sweetnesss (Brix) and demand.

The Chaunsa has a Brix rating in the 22 degree level which is unheard of!
Carabao claims to be the sweetest mango in the world and was able to register this in the Guiness book of world records.
Perhaps it is time for a GLOBAL taste test ???





In alphabetical order by Country....










India




Alphonso




Alphonso (mango)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia







Alphonso (हापुस Haapoos in Marathi, હાફુસ in Gujarati, ಆಪೂಸ್ Aapoos in Kannada) is a mango cultivar that is considered by many[who?] to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. 


It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. 

It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in Kokan region of western India.

 It is in season April through May and the fruit wei…

7 Medicinal Properties Of Mango Leaves That You Aren’t Aware Of!

By admin

• On December 11, 2016 • 



Many of us know how delicious mangoes are!




Basically, mangoes are very nutritious and healthy to eat regularly, where not only just kids but also adults love to eat. These mangoes are only found in the large areas of India and it is said to be the hub of mangoes where huge quantities of mangoes are exported from this country to all the countries.


When we look into mango leaves­ they’re basically like the all other leaves i.e. green in color.
 At first they’re reddish in color and as they grow­ they turn into dark greenish color.

Mango leaves are rich in:
Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Also rich in flavonoids and phenols
Have powerful antioxidant properties



These were just the qualities of these leaves­ now we’ll understand about the importance of these leaves and the medical impact on the human body.


1. Diabetes


These leaves are rich in tannins called anthocyanidins­ useful for treating diabetes in the early stage.
The method of using these leaves is simple­ first w…